Quick references and more information

The Copyright Act stipulates that if you want to use or reuse a work (publication) protected by copyright, or if you want to share it with others (such as by e-mailing it or uploading it onto Brightspace), you will have to receive permission to do so from the copyright holder(s), pay the copyright holder(s) a reasonable fee and must cite the source. This also applies to works found on the internet. You can read more about the Copyright Act at www.auteursrechten.nl/en.

So what is allowed?

  • Creating links to copyrighted works (such as articles, books, chapters of books, papers, other publications and videos) found on the internet is always permissible but only if these publications were lawfully published. Linking to a individual image is not obvious, so it may be copied. However, students must adhere to the conditions for citing (see below under plagiarism) and teachers must adhere to the Easy Access Regulation (see below).
  • Check to see if the works are available through the digital library. If so, you can create a link to them without encountering any problems.
  • If the work was published by the government (and the copyright was not explicitly reserved), or if you are using laws, decrees and regulations, court rulings or administrative decisions, you may use or reuse these publications without encountering any problems.
  • If the works are distributed under a licence (such as Creative Commons), such licences usually offer more freedom of citation. Check to see if the work has such a licence and see what the conditions are. . If you want to upload such a work in an electronic learning environment* or want to use it in a printed reader and the work exceeds the limit of the Easy Access Regulation, then this citation must be reported (see below).

Use for educational purposes

The Hague University of Applied Sciences has a ‘Easy Access Regulation’ with the Foundation Publisher's Organization for Educational Licenses (Stichting UvO), formerly Stichting PRO, for the quoting of short citations of copyrighted works for educational purposes. This regulation provides permission for this and eliminates the need for a reasonable compensation as long as the works satisfy the conditions regarding ‘short citations’. These short citations can be uploaded in an electronic learning environment* or included in a printed reader.

Easy Access Regeling EN

Please note: quoting of short citations of copyrighted works regulated in the regulation is only applicable for use for educational purposes. Communication purposes towards, for example, prospective students, including the use of copyrighted works for the preparatory assignment, are not included. For these purposes it is best to use works with a Creative Commons license or by linking to works on the internet that have been lawfully published.

Long citations

For 'long citations', permission will have to be requested and a reasonable fee will have to be paid. This can be done in the following ways:

  • The copyright holder has already given permission for reuse by distributing the work under a license (such as Creative Commons). There is no need to pay a reasonable fee. The period of use is unlimited. However, the acquisition must be reported. Annually, if it is used for several years.
  • Permission is requested directly from the copyright holder(s) of the work. Note that the author is not always the (sole) copyright holder. Multiple authors have joint copyright and each author must give permission. In many cases the publisher is the copyright holder for published work. Normally there is no need to pay a reasonable fee. Agree on a period of use.
  • Permission is requested from Stichting UvO. Number of course participants or print runs is required. Stichting UvO sends an invoice for payment of the reasonable fee. The period of use is one year by default.

A long citation must be reported annually in all these cases. Number of course participants or print runs is required.

These long extracts can be uploaded in an electronic learning environment* or included in a printed reader.

If you want to use more individual images than the limit allowed by the Easy Access Regulation, use images with a (Creative Commons) license. More information on the Audiovisual media page.

More information about ‘short’ and ‘long’ citations in the Quick reference guide on (digital) educational material is available at www.auteursrechten.nl/en and (in Dutch only) at www.Stichting-UvO.nl.


  • Are responsible for the timely compliance with the Copyright Act in cases of long citations.
  • If necessary, ask for permission or ensure that permission is requested from the copyright holder(s) for the long citation, if necessary, directly or via the portal of Stichting PRO.
  • Are responsible for archiving and, if asked, making available evidence that written permission has been given for using a long quotation. (Written consent has to be established since oral consent is not legally valid.)
  • When a module is shared by a fellow lecturer, he/she must also comply with the agreements (including ones about evidence) regarding the citations.
  • Ensure that a long citation (when uploaded in a digital learning environment* or included in a printed reader) is reported annually. In addition to the information about the work from which it was copied, also supply the number of course participants or print runs for this report. Adequate reporting prevents an audit and thus possible additional costs.

See the THUAS flow chart for procedures/decisions concerning citations. Ask within your faculty about the registration of citations at Stichting UvO and the procedure for reporting long citations.

For the production of a printed reader you can contact the REPRO (usually via your faculty). The REPRO assumes that the Copyright Act was complied with when compiling the reader. The lecturer remains responsible for this.

* An electronic learning environment is understood to mean carriers that / a network / an environment to which only registered students and employees of The Hague University of Applied Sciences are made available / have access. This includes Brightspace, the portal, blended learning tools. Pay attention to the access rights.


Plagiarism is the use or close imitation of another person’s work and the representation of them as one’s own original work which can occur if you incorrectly acknowledge a source or if you do not comply with the other conditions of citing.

Quoting means to repeat or copy what someone else has said, written or made. This applies not just to a literal representation but also a representation in your own words (paraphrasing). Because you are using another’s work, it is essential that you acknowledge this and meet the following requirements:

  1. The quote must be part of a polemic, announcement, evaluation, scientific treatise or a message of a comparable purpose;
  2. The quote must be functional, i.e. it must support the content of the work in which it is cited, and may not be included for ornamental purposes; and
  3. The size of the quote must be related to the objective you are trying to achieve. Long programmes or long texts must not be copied for example, short text fragments can be. Works of art and photographs can be ‘quoted’ in their entirety.
  4. The quote must cite the source, including a clear statement of the author's name. 


  • The APA manual en APA guidelines for the correct provision of citations.
  • RefWorks. A handy tool for correct citation.
  • Worldcat.org. A global library catalogue that enables you to find the publications you wish to cite. Using its cite/export function, you can easily copy a citation to your bibliography or export it to RefWorks.
  • THUAS offers teaching staff the opportunity of having papers, theses and reports submitted by students scanned by the plagiarism prevention program Ouriginal. The program is linked to the online submission option in Brightspace. More information, manuals and frequently asked questions can be found on Brightspace. Lecturers can ask their questions via Brightspace-support@hhs.nl with the subject “Ouriginal”.

Copyrights information point

The Library advises and assists students, lecturers and researchers with copyright questions. The Library is also a member of the national network of copyrights information points for universities of applied sciences. Members of this network share expertise and develop basic rules, tools and resources.

Would you like to know more?

The person to contact for issues concerning copyright legislation: bibliotheek@hhs.nl